Uric acid is a heterocyclic compound of carbonnitrogenoxygenand hydrogen with the formula C 5 H 4 N 4 O 3. It forms ions and salts known as urates and acid uratessuch as ammonium acid urate. Uric acid is a product of the metabolic breakdown of purine nucleotides, and it is a normal component of urine. High blood concentrations of uric acid can lead to gout and are associated with other medical conditions including diabetes and the formation of ammonium acid urate kidney stones.
As its second ionization is so weak, the full urate salts hydrolyze back to hydrogen urate salts at pH values around neutral. It is aromatic because of conjugated pi bonding in both rings. X-ray diffraction studies on the hydrogen urate ion in crystals of ammonium hydrogen urate, formed in vivo as gouty deposits, reveal that the keto oxygen in the 2 position of the purine structure on the carbon between two nitrogens in the six-membered ring exists as an OH group while the two flanking nitrogen atoms at the 1 and Weight loss uric acid levels positions share the ionic charge in the six-membered pi-resonance-stabilized ring.
The five-membered ring also possesses a keto group in the 8 positionflanked by two secondary amino groups in the 7 and 9 positionsand deprotonation of one of these at high pH could explain the p K 2 and behavior as a diprotic acid. Similar tautomeric rearrangement and pi-resonance stabilization would then give the ion some degree of stability.
Calculations seem to indicate that in aqueous solution and in the gas phasethe singly ionized form has no hydrogens on oxygens and lacks a hydrogen either on nitrogen 9 or on nitrogen 3, whereas the un-ionized uric acid has hydrogens on all four nitrogens. The uppermost NH on the five-membered ring is "7", counting counter-clockwise around this ring to the lower NH, which is "9".
Uric acid was first isolated from kidney stones in by the Swedish chemist Carl Weight loss uric acid levels Scheele. All these salts exhibit greater solubility in hot water than cold, allowing for easy recrystallization. This low solubility is significant for the etiology of gout. The solubility of the acid and its salts in ethanol is very low or negligible. The figures given indicate what mass of water is required to dissolve a unit mass of compound indicated.
The lower the number the more soluble the substance in the said solvent. Xanthine oxidase is a large enzyme whose active site consists of the metal Weight loss uric acid levels bound to sulfur and oxygen. In most other mammalsthe enzyme uricase further oxidizes uric acid to allantoin. In humans, over half the antioxidant capacity of blood plasma comes from hydrogen urate ion.
The Dalmatian dog has a genetic defect in uric acid uptake by the liver and Weight loss or gain with busparresulting in decreased conversion to allantoinso this breed excretes uric acid, and not allantoin, in the urine. This involves a complex metabolic pathway that is energetically costly in comparison to processing of other nitrogenous wastes such as urea from urea cycle or ammoniabut has the advantages of reducing water loss and preventing dehydration.
Variants within a number of genes have so far been identified: SLC2A9 ; ABCG2 ; SLC17A1 ; SLC22A11 ; SLC22A12 ; SLC16A9 ; GCKR ; LRRC16A ; and PDZK1. Uric acid concentrations in blood plasma above and below the normal range are known as, respectively, hyperuricemia and hypouricemia. Likewise, uric acid concentrations in urine above and below normal are known as hyperuricosuria and hypouricosuria. Uric acid levels in saliva may be associated with blood uric acid levels.
Consumption of some types of purine-rich foods, particularly meat and seafood, increases gout risk. Today, Weight loss uric acid levels during attacks is more commonly treated with NSAIDscolchicine, or corticosteroidsand urate levels are managed with allopurinol. These uric acid stones are radiolucent and so do not appear on an abdominal plain X-ray. Low dietary zinc intakes cause lower uric acid levels. This effect can be even more pronounced in women taking oral contraceptive medication.
Weight loss uric acid levels
A low-purine diet is limits foods with high purine and can help prevent or treat gout and kidney stones. Learn learn what foods and drinks to avoid. A low-purine diet is limits foods with high purine and This is a condition caused by high levels of uric acid. It’s also important not to lose weight too. Uric Acid. Gout and Hyperuricemia. Gout is a form of arthritis that is characterized by sudden, severe attacks of pain, redness and tenderness in joints.